Like all skilled visas, the Skilled - Nominated or Sponsored (491) visa is a points-based application.
There are two pathways for the 491 visa:
State Sponsorship On A 491 Visa
The Skilled Sponsored (491) visa requires sponsorship by an Australian state or territory. Each state has unique skill shortages and thus occupations appear at different times on different lists. Each state varies in its specific requirements.
Some states require applicants to have higher English scores; others require more work experience or detailed evidence of the applicant's assets. You must live in a regional area of the state that sponsors you.
Relative Sponsorship On A 491 Visa
If your nominated occupation is on the Medium and Long-term Strategic Skills List (MLTSSL) you can be sponsored by an eligible relative living in a designated area. Your relative must be a permanent resident or citizen of Australia or an eligible New Zealand citizen. This includes your sibling, parent, child, aunt, uncle, cousin or grandparent.
Your relative can be living in any part of Victoria, Western Australia, South Australia, Northern Territory and Tasmania. If your relative lives in Queensland or New South Wales, they must live outside the metropolitan area. You must live in the same designated area as your relative.